Installing Debian 9 / Kali 2.0 to an already LUKS encrypted LVM volume group

A quick guide for those of you struggling to install Debian Stretch, Kali 2.0 or other Linux systems that use the Debian installer, into a previously configured LVM volume group – i.e. into a LUKS encrypted partition.

Example: You have your disk already encrypted with other Linux system(s) present and now you want to install Debian / Kali 2.0 into this encrypted disk. You’d prefer one encrypted partition for your systems, rather than shrinking the size of one to create another.

I recently came across this problems and after searching online found limited information on how this was possible. Debian doesn’t have a Live version to unlock/decrypt a previously configured LVM volume group, Kali does have a Live version, but from 2.0 it is no longer possible to access the installer from the Live version, for whatever reason. So this needs to be done from the Debian installer using BusyBox.

Note: The installer does have the option to set up LVM, but unfortunately does not have a built-into-installer solution for decrypting and mounting a volume group. This has been tested on Debian Jessie 8, Stretch 9 and Kali 2.0.
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